Although an occasional sleep apnea can cause some short-term changes in the body, it will not cause much harm to the health of the human body. However, this kind of suffocation occurs repeatedly for a long time, night after night, year after year, and its harm cannot be ignored.
(1) Cardiovascular system:
① Hypertension: 40% to 60% of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients have a history of hypertension. Unlike other hypertensive patients, their blood pressure is mostly highest in the morning, with obvious headaches and dizziness in the morning, and the effect of drug treatment alone difference. After effective treatment of apnea, high blood pressure can be reduced, and some can even fall to the normal range.
② Pulmonary heart disease, right heart failure: pulmonary hypertension, 10% to 20% of sleep apnea syndrome patients will have pulmonary hypertension, and the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndrome can reach 55%. Combined with pulmonary diseases (such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema), sleep apnea is more likely to lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure, aggravating the work load of the right ventricle and right atrium, causing pulmonary heart disease and right heart failure, mainly manifested as leg swelling, Shortness of breath. In my country. The most common causes of right heart failure are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, we found that obese patients without a history of lung disease may also have clinical manifestations of right heart insufficiency after suffering from sleep apnea for many years.
③ Changes in left ventricular function: echocardiography and autopsy have found that long-term sleep apnea can increase the weight of the left heart, thicken the ventricular wall, and reduce the blood volume ejected per heartbeat.
④ Ischemic heart disease: Ischemic heart disease mainly includes angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Hypoxia is an important cause of angina pectoris. Studies have shown that sleep apnea is one of the risk factors for heart disease. Holter examination revealed that the occurrence of ST-segment decline during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome is very complicated, suggesting cardiac ischemia and hypoxia. Especially in patients with pre-existing heart disease, factors such as hypoxia caused by apnea, autonomic dysfunction, and high blood pressure will accelerate the development of arteriosclerosis, induce angina pectoris and even myocardial infarction.
⑤ Arrhythmia: The heart rate alternates between fast and slow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome, and the heart rate fluctuates greatly. Most of them are sinus tachycardia, but there are also short bursts of atrial or ventricular tachycardia. The slower ones have heart block, Heart arrest, almost half of patients with sleep apnea syndrome will have a variety of arrhythmias, some even fatal. Simple treatment of sleep apnea can often achieve good results. But it is easy to be misdiagnosed as a heart disease.
(2) Nervous system:
① Cerebrovascular disease: We all know that a cerebrovascular accident, which is commonly referred to as a stroke, occurs at night. Overnight, the patient's mouth and eyes will be crooked and the limbs will be paralyzed. Research has found that snoring and apnea during sleep can increase the morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. . More than 53% of male cerebrovascular patients have a long-term history of habitual snoring, and 35% of patients have cerebrovascular accidents during sleep and snoring. And apnea is closely related. More and more evidences show that snoring and apnea are independent risk factors of cerebrovascular disease, which play a very important role in the occurrence and aggravation of cerebrovascular accidents.
② Excessive drowsiness: Frequent awakenings caused by sleep apnea can severely disturb the patient’s sleep, the period of deep sleep decreases or even disappears, and the patient is in a state of insufficient sleep for a long time. The severity of daytime sleepiness is closely related to the severity of sleep apnea syndrome. Drowsiness and lethargy during the day will seriously affect work, study, and life, especially drivers and patients engaged in high-altitude operations. The accident rate is very high and can endanger the lives of others.
③ Mental and psychological hazards: mental decline, abnormal personality and behavior, and the relationship with sleep apnea syndrome is very clear: the interpersonal relationship between sleep apnea syndrome patients and family members and colleagues is often not harmonious: depression and other spirits The disease can also be seen in patients with sleep apnea syndrome: some studies have also found that sleep apnea is also related to the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease.
(3) Endocrine and Metabolic System:
Loss of libido or impotence is more common in male patients with apnea syndrome. Statistics show that 44% of 50 patients with sleep apnea syndrome have varying degrees of sexual dysfunction. Recent studies have also shown that endocrine and metabolic dysfunction caused by sleep apnea can aggravate obesity.
(4) Blood system:
Many patients with sleep-eye apnea syndrome have more red blood cells, hemoglobin is greater than 160 grams per liter, which exceeds the normal range, and the blood viscosity increases. This is due to the body's hypoxia caused by long-term apnea. The red blood cells in the blood compensate for the hyperplasia in order to carry more oxygen, and the increase in urination caused by the changes in the content of other endocrine hormones in the body and the concentration of blood are also important factors that cause the increase of red blood cells in the blood.
(5) Renal function:
The urine output of patients with sleep apnea syndrome increases during night sleep, the number of times can reach more than 3 times, and the protein content of urine in some patients increases.
The mortality rate of many diseases increases at night, especially sudden deaths of unknown cause, sudden deaths often occur at night. Doctors often attribute it to cardiac arrest, but in many patients, the cause of cardiac arrest is not clear. Sleep apnea syndrome is one of the culprits that cause sudden death at night. Autopsy of 460 patients with sudden death found that apnea is one of the risk factors for night death of cardiovascular disease patients, and the night death rate of habitual snorers also increased. Studies in recent years have also shown that the 5-year mortality rate of untreated patients with sleep apnea syndrome is 11% to 13%; for patients with more than 20 apneas per hour, the 8-year mortality rate is as high as 37%: Patients with less than 20 apneas per hour: the case fatality rate is only 4%: 70 cases of sleep apnea syndrome patients with different severity levels have been reported. The average age of critically ill patients with sleep disordered breathing more than 40 times per hour is only about 45 years old. Significantly lower than the average age of patients in the milder group: clinically, it has also been found that there are few critically ill patients over 65, suggesting that the life span of patients with severe sleep apnea syndrome is shortened.
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